Clearing House

Clearing House


The Clearing House searches for, selects, and categorizes published articles and media on the role of the private sector in health. The clearing house is currently focused on the delivery of  COVID-19 vaccines, diagnostics, therapeutics, PPE and oxygen, and aims to promote cross-country learning and share country experiences.

Over time the role of the clearing house will expand to provide information highlighting the needs and solutions for stronger health system governance and better public policy toward the private sector in health - notably to rebuild more resilient and better prepared health systems.

Total number of resources
Resources added in the past month
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Curated Literature

This month the Clearing House search focused on governance of referral systems that include private sector providers. A total of 18 articles on the topic were collected. Relating to the governance behaviours, most of the 18 resources were associated with deliver strategy (94%), followed by align structures (89%).

Country Focus

Using mHealth to enhance TB referrals in a tribal district of India

This month’s country focus showcases Khunti District’s integrated approach of including private and public health care providers, along with patients, on a single mobile platform. The approach synergized the delivery of health care services and improved the quality of programme implementation such as in the reduction in dropouts among referred patients, timely dissemination of sputum results to patients and providers and early treatment initiation.

Top 5 Reads of the Month
  1. Expanding Maternal and Neonatal Survival in Indonesia. This report observes that the new “SijariEMAS” referral exchange system was widely praised as the first comprehensive referral system developed and implemented in Indonesia. It increased efficiency of maternal and child health services by integrating public and private sector facilities.

  2. Linking private, for-profit providers to public sector services for HIV and tuberculosis co-infected patients: A systematic review. This review highlights three studies, which provide examples of varying degrees of public-private TB/HIV service delivery and can potentially serve as models for integrated TB/HIV care systems.

  3. Engaging Private Providers in HIV Care and Treatment: Lessons from the BroadReach Down Referral Model in North West Province, South Africa. This report shows that a local network of private general practitioners can effectively provide an alternative service delivery option for stable patients requiring antiretroviral therapy maintenance care and services to combat public sector constraints.

  4. Feasibility study of strengthening the public–private partnership for tuberculosis case detection in Bandung City, Indonesia. This study shows that with adequate training and support, a mobile phone application for reporting TB-symptomatic individuals and diagnosed TB cases was acceptable and utilised by private practitioners.

  5. Public sector engagement of private healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Uttar Pradesh, India. This paper shows that while the Government of Uttar Pradesh rapidly mobilized private laboratories, and enlisted private hospitals to provide COVID-19 services, it undertook only limited engagement of solo private providers.

Governance Behavior Spotlight

Social Enterprise Model (SEM) for private sector tuberculosis screening and care in Bangladesh

This research paper demonstrates how a social enterprise model led to the establishment a referral network of public and private providers, who referred individuals with presumptive tuberculosis without financial incentives to icddr,b’s (the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh) screening centres, facilitating a quarter of total tuberculosis notifications in Dhaka Metropolitan Area. Scaling up this approach may enhance national and international tuberculosis response.

How does the clearing house work?


Users may search these resources using variables such as type of COVID-19 tool (vaccines, diagnostics, therapeutics, oxygen, PPE), health system function (governance, health finance, service delivery, resource generation), private sector positioning (positive, negative, neutral), country and WHO region.


Please contact us using the web form below if you have any feedback or if you would like to contribute a resource or collaborate with us.

Please note: this is an ongoing process of collating relevant resources and may not cover all resources available. Articles that do not give emphasis to the private sector and COVID-19 and the specific tools (i.e. vaccines, diagnostics, therapeutics, PPE and oxygen) have been excluded. The Clearing House collates resources, it is not intended to assess quality and / or content of the resources included, but rather to facilitate the gathering of published literature and media on the topic of engaging the private sector for the delivery of COVID19 tools.

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